CITIZENS DEPRIVED OF CIVIL RIGHTS
by Jesus Ramos
Puerto Ricans, who are U. S. citizens, are a mixed race of Spanish, Taino Indian, and African blood, who speak a Romance language, Spanish, migrated to the United States not because of political or religious persecution, but primarily for economic reasons. Because they came to the United States for reasons distinct from other immigrant groups, the newcomers did not easily accept the American way of life. Cultural differences and the Puerto Rican peoples' strong sense of identity with that culture, the language barrier, and color all proved to be obstacles to the Puerto Ricans' assimilation into the mainstream of American society. In addition, most Puerto Ricans who immigrated to the United States had no intention of remaining in the United States permanently. Because Puerto Ricans are U. S. citizens, they may travel between the two regions easily.
The Puerto Rican people became United States citizens with the passage of the Foracker Act in 1900 and the Jones Act in 1917. Actually, citizenship was not so much granted as imposed. Before the passage of these acts, Puerto Rico was a military territory of the United States, and the Puerto Rican people were not given a voice in the other decisions affecting their lives. Puerto Rico is not a colony of the United States and its government is a Commonwealth.
This is one of the streets in Isabel Segunda, the part of Vieques that is inhabited.
The United States has made few attempts to improve the economy of the Island. To the United States Government, Puerto Rico is merely an important strategic location used by the U. S. Navy. (Presently, the Island of Vieques off the coast of Puerto Rico, is undergoing economic decay at the whim of the Navy. The Navy has occupied 80 per cent of Vieques since 1941 and used the Island for bombing practice and war games. This has injured the fishing industry which the people of Vieques depend on for survival.) Because of the unstable economy, the Puerto Rican people have no alternative but to leave their mother country to migrate to the land of the Americans in search of employment to support their families. Most of the new arrivals to the United States are members of large families undergoing severe economic stress. The majority of the Puerto Rican migrants settled in the large Northern cities, but a minority moved to more rural areas that more closely resemble the towns of their mother country. Generally, the Puerto Rican people settled wherever jobs were available. Migration has not been an adequate solution to the problems of the Puerto Rican people. To our dismay, the Puerto Ricans have been confronted with the same serious problems in the United States as they faced in their mother country.
By the latter part of the 1960's, the Puerto Rican population in Manchester, New Hampshire was becoming more visible. The migration to Manchester, like most Puerto Rican migration, had been primarily for economic reasons. Manchester was experiencing a period of economic growth, and the demand for workers was great. Puerto Ricans were offered employment in a number of work places, primarily factories and mills, and Puerto Ricans moving to Manchester were promised decent housing, health benefits, and an education for their children.
There are 3,000 Hispanics in Manchester. Through the years, the population of Hispanics has increased until they now constitute 3 per cent of the population of Manchester, New Hampshire. Those Hispanics who settled here sent for their families and friends, and in this manner the population increased. This has been a common pattern among all migrating groups. The Hispanic population is comprised of Uruguayans, Chileans, Mexicans, Colombians, and Puerto Ricans. The Puerto Rican population constitutes approximately 3/4 of the Hispanic community of Manchester, New Hampshire.
The Puerto Rican community faced, and continues to face, the hardships of discrimination in Manchester. The only available housing that Puerto Ricans could afford on their low wages was (and still is) located at Kimball and Pine Streets. Kimball Street residents are poor white, poor blacks, poor Puerto Ricans, and other Hispanics. Kimball street is considered by the general public to be the "ghetto" of Manchester, New Hampshire. The "ghetto" classification of Kimball Street has attached a stigma to all the residents of Kimball Street, the majority of whom are Hispanics. One resident of Kimball Street states, "Whenever a resident of Kimball Street goes into downtown Manchester and says she lives on Kimball Street, she is rejected and not helped. She is rejected to the extent that she cannot obtain employment and move off Kimball Street into improved housing in another area." Many Puerto Ricans are turned away from jobs simply because they live on Kimball Street, are tan skinned, and speak in broken English. Many are patronized with the "come back next week" response. This experience places the Puerto Rican citizen on the fringe of the community. She knows her needs, but can find no one to assist her in meeting them.
The Puerto Rican population in Manchester is confronted with a number of complex and inter-related problems in the areas of education, housing, employment, social services, and law enforcement. The City of Manchester has made no attempts to remedy these problems. The Puerto Rican people have been victims of benign neglect. The City of Manchester, New Hampshire has not even bothered to prepare a census of the Hispanic community to encourage the creation of government programs to assist the community. The Puerto Rican and Hispanic community is an important part of the Manchester community and should no longer be ignored.
The remainder of this report will focus on the problems facing the Puerto Rican and Hispanic community. In conclusion, a list of recommendations will be presented.
The Hispanic community is in need of bilingual education in the public schools. The Puerto Rican child is being deprived of the opportunity to learn because successful methods of teaching Puerto Rican children in their native language, Spanish, are not used in the Manchester schools. Nearly all of the Spanish-speaking children are one year or more behind their grade level. This is one of the reasons why so many of our children do not finish high school. There are children of sixteen who have been placed in a grade with fourteen year olds because they do not speak English. Their inability to understand, or their teacher's inability to teach the Puerto Rican student because of the language barrier, created in the Puerto Rican child an inferiority complex which often prompts him to quit school. Another reason why our children do not finish high school is that too many of them are being pushed out. In the past, they have been placed in one classroom (all ages mixed) with one teacher. Some were placed in the Maynard School where handicapped children are taught. The Puerto Rican children are considered handicapped, "slow learners," or "retarded" because they could not learn quickly when taught in a language they did not understand. Children who attend Webster School are transported to school in a taxicab. The taxi transports 14 children in one trip. The Department of Education, rather than fully developing a Title VII bilingual program, provides only a program in English as a Second Language (E.S.L.). The E.S.L. program essentially provides a course in English language skills without cultural overtones. The emphasis in an E.S.L. program is to make the Puerto Rican student forget his or her language and cultural values, even to the extent that the student begins to resent his or her parents speaking Spanish. The E.S.L. program provides only a few hours per week of instruction, and little attention is given to the value of preserving the student's own language and culture.
Communication between the school and Hispanic community groups is lacking. These groups, which might be able to aid the school department in enrolling students, counseling dropouts, and determining the future of bilingual programs, are treated as if they do not exist. Thus, the Hispanic community is ill-informed and lacks input into decisions effecting the education of its children.
In summary, the Puerto Rican child faces an identity crisis in the schools because positive role models (such as Hispanic teachers or guidance counselors) are not available, and none of the schools offer courses on Puerto Rican or Latin American history and culture. Such courses would instill a sense of pride in the Puerto Rican student and make other students aware of the value of cultural differences. Before innovative courses can be implemented however, there must be a change in the Manchester schools system's failure to maintain adequate records on Puerto Rican students. The schools might then be better prepared to plan programs and to hire Spanish-speaking and Puerto Rican teachers and staff.
The housing problems that confront most Puerto Ricans are the same as those which confront most slum dwellers, except they are more acute. The housing is sub-standard with insufficient heat in the winter. Apartments have chipped paint on the walls and are infested with cockroaches. If the tenant doesn't pay the rent on time, the manager will not notify the tenant and try to work the problem out. Instead, the tenant simply receives an eviction notice from the Court. Because of their low per capita income, Puerto Ricans in Manchester and Nashua, New Hampshire are also forced to pay an above average portion of their income for rent. This large expense affects all other facets of their lives. It takes needed money away from such necessary items as food, health services, clothing, and education.
In Manchester, most of the Puerto Ricans live in one area -- the west side of Kimball Street in a Housing Authority Project. Puerto Ricans are discriminated against in the private housing market. Many Puerto Ricans find that adequate housing is not available to them, even if their income will permit it, because they are Puerto Ricans.
Another factor relegating the Puerto Ricans to the slums is their strong cultural ties. The people wish to remain in touch with one another, and retain their native language and culture.
Puerto Ricans are the victims of a vicious cycle of housing shortages, housing deterioration, exorbitant rents, and discrimination that precludes their exit from the cycle. While this pattern generally effects all poor Americans, it is particularly hard on the Puerto Rican because of the language barrier and the Puerto Rican's low level of income.
The major impediment for the Puerto Rican community, however, is that public housing isn't a realistic alternative to low income housing. Public housing and publicly assisted housing are scarce, and the tenant admission policies make Puerto Rican occupancy difficult. The result is a lack of Puerto Rican beneficiaries in programs supposedly designed for all poor Americana. The language barrier is again a problem here. Its effect is to restrict Puerto Rican access to public housing.
In Manchester and Nashua, applications for public housing are not available in Spanish, and tenant handbooks, instruction materials, and leases are printed in English only. A more serious obstacle is the absence of Spanish-speaking and Puerto Rican personnel among city employees. Spanish-speaking applicants are rejected because they cannot speak sufficient English to qualify for employment, while at the same time, the need for Spanish-speaking city employees is great.
One area of concern already alluded to is the need of Puerto Rican families for large apartments. In both Manchester and Nashua, there is a shortage of four and five bedroom public housing units. Puerto Ricans continually complain of long delays in application processing, lost applications, and, if they do live in public housing, of being forced to pay for needed repairs on the apartment. They are charged for litter in their area even if it is not theirs. They are charged for the issuing of house or mail keys. Should they loose theirs, they have to pay a service charge of $1.00. They are denied transfers from one housing unit to another. They have to present a doctor's certificate saying that the environment is bad for their health in order to get a transfer. The housing authority does not provide adequate playground or recreational facilities for the children. When Hispanics apply for occupancy in private homes/apartment buildings, they are denied because:
1. They have children;
2. They come from Kimball Street;
3. They are Hispanics/Puerto Ricans; and
4. They cannot afford the high security deposits that are required.
Housing agencies could do much more to assist Puerto Ricans. Applications and other literature could be written in Spanish. The employment of more Puerto Ricans and Spanish speaking people by the city and consideration of the needs of the Hispanic community when programs are formulated are essential actions that these agencies should already be taking.
In the final analysis, the housing problems of the Puerto Ricans are similar to the problems of the poor, the racially discriminated against, and the new migrant to the urban north.
The major factors contributing to the employment problems of Puerto Ricans are the language barrier, limited education, lack of job training, lack of experience in factory-type employment, and the failure of employers to cooperate. The inability to speak English greatly restricts or eliminates job opportunities for Spanish speaking Puerto Ricans. Employers do not have applications in Spanish or Spanish-speaking personnel. If a Spanish speaking Puerto Rican does obtain a job, it is often difficult for him to communicate with his supervisor or other employees. This often leads to early dismissal. Most Puerto Ricans are employed as service workers, laborers, and operatives. In some areas, no Puerto Ricans are employed in the building and construction trades, in heavy industrial work, or in civil service positions. Puerto Ricans, in short, are relegated to the lowest paying, unskilled, and most expendable sector of the American labor force. Most Puerto Ricans earn the minimum wage and have no medical health plans.
They work in various companies and factories such as Carol Cable, a factory; R.C.L. and Amtuteck, electrical power plants; Previe Products and Myrna's, shoe factories; Waumbec, a factory; Pandora, a clothing factory; and Granite State Packing and Fiber Processing Company. A small number are members of the union who have often not been informed of their health benefits. Outreach efforts provided to the Puerto Rican community for job placement and employment programs have been limited. The failure of the department of Employment Security to employ an adequate number of Spanish-speaking staff also contributes to the problem. Throughout the government agencies and public service institutions (hospitals, health centers, and the like), the need for Spanish speaking and Puerto Rican employees should be evident. Without Spanish-speaking staff, the agencies and institutions are unable to communicate with the community they hope to serve. Without Puerto Rican Employees, the agencies are unable to provide the Puerto Rican with the friendly face and knowledge of Puerto Rican history and culture that only a kinsman can offer. The need for Spanish speaking and Puerto Rican employees in the Department of Employment Security, Welfare Department, police department, courts, schools, hospitals, and supermarkets is obvious. But, even where obvious, the need goes unmet. The Puerto Rican is neither helped nor employed. If the state and local government is unable to employ Spanish-speaking and Puerto Rican citizens, then a lion's share of the blame must rest with the Civil Service Commission.
In summary, the City of Manchester's attempts t help a group of American citizens without attempting to communicate with them is astonishing and impossible. Yet, this is the everyday story for the Puerto Ricans. If the cycle is to be broken, the public service employment of Puerto Ricans must begin. A small first step might be some initiative on the part of the Civil Service Commission and all State and local government employers to hire some Spanish-speaking employees to serve the Spanish-speaking community. From this meager start, education, health care, and employment prospects for Puerto Ricans in the private sector might improve.
The Welfare department, medicaid, and medical clinics are commonly thought of as synonymous with poverty in America today [at this writing, it is June 11, 1995], and no institutions are more involved with the problems of the poor than hospitals and public assistance offices. For Puerto Ricans, these institutions evoke the same emotions of hope and frustration that millions of their fellow poor have felt. The differences for Puerto Ricans are in terms of their understanding of the operation of the system and the system's inability to overcome their language barrier. English speaking caseworkers have little understanding of the idiosyncracies of the Spanish language and little sensitivity to the problems of Puerto Ricans. The result is an attitude of contempt on the part of the caseworker, and distrust as well as dislike on the part of the client. The attitude of most caseworkers can be classified as "treating the clients as low-class people." Some Hispanics have revealed that they are afraid to go to the Welfare Department because of the degrading treatment they get from the social workers.
Since Manchester does not have any public or municipal hospitals, Puerto Ricans cannot receive full medical service. The only hospitals available to Puerto Ricans, Elliot and Catholic Medical Center, are private hospitals. When a Puerto Rican Arrives at the emergency room of the hospital, he often has to wait three of four hours before he is treated, and he may not be treated at all if he cannot pay the admission fee. If he cannot pay the doctor or is late making the payments, he is not dismissed until full payment is received. Private doctors operate in a similar manner.
LAW ENFORCEMENT AND POLICE BRUTALITY
Constitution of the United States, Article XIV, Section I
"All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the EQUAL protection of the laws."
Many Puerto Rican's Constitutional Rights have been violated in the City of Manchester by law enforcement officers. In this part of the presentation in particular, we stress and ask for your help. When we claim that our rights have been violated, the court system is biased and does not give weight and consideration to our testimonies. We are in great need of lawyers who are experienced in working in the Hispanic community who are familiar with these issues. Many Puerto Ricans do not know their rights, and even if they did know them, they would continue to be abused. A Puerto Rican when arrested either is not read his Miranda rights, or does not understand them if they are read to him, because they are read to him in English. Many are arrested without probable cause; it is probable cause enough that they are poor and Hispanic. Many are arrested, beaten and then released because the police thought or say they "look like someone else," or they "resisted arrest."
The Courts of Manchester do not provide interpreters to the Spanish-speaking person. Instead, the judge ridicules Puerto Ricans, saying "Why don't you go back to Puerto Rico?" which has nothing to do with the fact that they are in Court. At least one Puerto Rican was not allowed to call his attorney at the time of his arraignment. Disparity in sentencing is also a problem. Puerto Ricans receive longer sentences than "Americans" convicted of the same offenses. The judges threat Puerto Ricans as if they were aliens, instead of United States citizens who have as much right to be here as they do.
Constitution of the United States, Article IV
"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated, and no warrant shall be issued except upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
The Puerto Rican community has suffered years of illegal searches and seizures. The police have broken into non-English speaking family's homes at all times of the day and night and without consideration that the family is sleeping. Furthermore, the police break in and take Puerto Ricans into custody without allowing them to get dressed for the outside cold climate, to which they are not accustomed. The police search Puerto Rican homes to the extent of dismantling dresser drawers and other items with no warrants at all. The police regularly perform illegal searches and seizures of Puerto Rican's cars and persons with probable cause, and have beaten them.
Constitution of the United States, Article I
"Congress shall make no law respecting establishment of religion...or abridging the freedom of speech... or the right of the people to peaceably assemble, and to petition the government for redress of grievances."
One outstanding element of the Latin American culture has been close community ties. We are accustomed to gathering at the "Plazas" in the afternoons to play such games as dominoes or just to gather and converse. The northern states do not have the "Plazas" and hence, the Puerto Ricans substitute the street corners or the porch of a building for their conversations. To the Puerto Ricans, this is a way of life, but to the police, it is considered Disturbing the Peace. When the police see a group of Puerto Ricans on the street, they promptly push them and tell them to move along and stay off the streets. The police are constantly harassing the Puerto Ricans for what is to them simply a part of their culture and way of life.
The Puerto Ricans are frequent victims of police brutality. They are both beaten and shot at more often than their caucasian counterparts. It is as if their lives are not worth as much because they are of another color and culture.
Life in Manchester is a constant struggle for survival. Many have left the city for other areas of the country or have been deported back to Puerto Rico. Newcomers from Puerto Rico face the same problems. The Puerto Rican lives in constant fear, hoping every day that they or a member of their family will not be the next one to be beaten, harassed, or run out of town. They feel that the police department is not there to protect them, but to harm them. We ask for your help with these problems. Editor's note: I want to conduct classes in English for Spanish speaking people at a reasonable fee for those Hispanic peoples who wish to remain in the mainland of the United States, especially in New York City. If the Hispanic community would enjoy learning English who do not speak it at the present time or if those who speak some English wish to learn it better, please advise us where you are located. Any reputable Sociologist in a college or university knows the reason that Hispanic people never learned English. It is because the job possibilities for responsible positions have not existed for many in the Hispanic community.
Naturally, there are considerable amounts of Hispanic people who have excelled in the United States becoming doctors, judges, lawyers, and other professions of noteworthiness, however, it is this writer's opinion that the potential of all people should be developed to it fullest extent.
As the author of the article you just finished reading stated, the police need to understand the Puerto Rican culture. It is just as acceptable as any other culture.
An excellent book that the editor read regarding the police is entitled The Iron Fist and The Velvet Glove. The police need to learn sensitivity training as well as the cultures of the various ethnicities they serve. Moreover, the people who do not have health insurance, must be given it by their employers.
An employer deducts it from his or her business expenses, in fact every penny is deducted. The cost of health insurance in the United States would greatly diminish if everyone had health insurance because the emergency rooms would not be needed nearly as often clearly saving immense amounts of money for the insurance industry.
Recommendations for education:
1. That the New Hampshire Commissioner of Education, in conjunction with the local school districts, conduct a census to determine the number of Spanish speaking children in the public schools as accurately as possible.
2. That the local school districts keep records on Puerto Rican students as "Puerto Ricans" separate from other classifications including attendance, dropout rates, and achievement levels.
3. That local school districts guarantee non-English speaking children the right to learn through the language of their birth. Efforts should be made so that special programs, such as the work-study programs and the vocational education classes, be made available on a bilingual-bicultural basis.
4. That local school districts begin to transfer the funds not used to support "English as a Second Language" programs plus additional Title I monies to develop and implement bilingual-Bicultural education programs. (Bilingual education differs from the ESL in that it uses the two languages, English and Spanish, for language instruction as well as for teaching subject matter and it does contain a substantial bicultural component.)
5. That the school districts of Manchester and Nashua create an advisory committee on bilingual education in which representatives of the school district, Spanish educators, and parents in the Puerto Rican community can cooperate in working to educate the children of that community.
6. That the local school districts seek waivers of certification requirement and the provisional certification be granted to all Puerto Rican and other ethnic Spanish speaking teachers who have the equivalent of a B.S. degree.
7. That the local school committees continue to recruit teachers in Puerto Rico and the recruits are truly bilingual before offering teaching positions.
8. That pending employment of a sufficient number of bilingual teachers, the school districts recruit and train bilingual Puerto Rican para-professionals for teacher's aide positions, and the school districts should consider a career opportunity program that would permit districts to hire Spanish speaking guidance counselors to encourage Puerto Rican students to stay in school and follow college preparatory curricula.
9. That the commissioner of education seek modifications of the civil service regulations so that the City may employ Puerto Ricans and other Spanish speaking persons at all levels within the agency.
10. That the local school districts begin to make all school forms and information handouts available to parents in Spanish.
11. That local school districts institute ongoing training sessions for teachers and administrators who work with Puerto Ricans and other Spanish speaking children to sensitize them to Puerto Rican culture and family life.
12. That local community action agencies select representative Spanish speaking pupils and teachers for their Head Start programs, and initiate experimental bilingual-bicultural programs for such children.
13. That additional appropriations for bilingual education be available through Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.
14. That titles I and VII funds be available for bilingual teacher and teacher aide training programs.
15. That the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) allocate funds for the creation of a regional curriculum development laboratory which would develop bilingual curricula suitable for the Spanish speaking student.
Recommendation on Housing:
1. That the State legislature revise the New Hampshire Sanitary Code, minimum standard of fitness for human habitation, to require landlords to make adequate and safe repairs.
2. That the local housing task forces of Manchester and Nashua form a special subcommittee to study in depth the problems of the Puerto Rican community, with adequate representation of Puerto Ricans on the subcommittee.
3. That local housing authorities increase their allocated budgets to improve maintenance service and social services programs.
4. That the local housing authorities increase the number of public housing units with four or more bedrooms.
5. That the local housing authorities employ a representative number of Puerto Ricans, especially in public contact position.
6. That the local housing authorities distribute to tenants and prospective tenants all materials in Spanish as well as English.
7. That the Manchester Housing Department recruit Puerto Rican inspectors.
8. That the Department of Housing and Urban Development allocate urban renewal for Manchester and Nashua.
9. That there be construction of recreational facilities in the housing projects for all children, improvement of playgrounds, for the projects which do not have any.
10. That an inspection be made of the heating temperatures that the tenants receive during the winter months, and the chipping of the wall.
Recommendations on Employment:
1. That the New Hampshire Civil Service Commission conduct an investigation, with the assistance from the New Hampshire Commission Against Discrimination, to determine the number of Spanish speaking employees within the civil service system. In order to make this assessment, the civil service commission should gather and review comprehensive information, by nonminority-minority classification, on employee distribution among the various agency components, job levels and locations, as well as data on referrals, applications, acceptances, promotions, and other personnel actions.
2. That the civil service commission employ Spanish speaking persons in policy making positions, interviewing, and other public contact positions, and that all announcements of civil service vacancies be distributed in Spanish.
3. That the civil service commission consult with employing authorities and the Spanish speaking community to determine what examinations should be available in Spanish.
4. That the New Hampshire Division of Employment Security employ Spanish speaking interviewers in the Manchester and Nashua offices and provide applications and other job information in Spanish.
5. That examinations administered by the division of employment security and the civil service commission provide a Spanish version if language is not an essential requisite to the job.
6. That Congress should amend Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by including State and local governments in the coverage of Title VII.
Recommendations on Social Services:
1. That the Governor appoint a committee to deal with health problems of the Puerto Rican in the State of New Hampshire. The mandate of the committee would be:
a. To survey available data on the health conditions of the Puerto Rican and design programs to meet these identified needs with the active participation of Puerto Rican community leaders;
b. To explore sources for funding programs;
c. To work closely with the New Hampshire State Legislature, board of Registration, the Office of Employment Security, professional organizations such as the centers of higher education to encourage the licensing of more Spanish speaking health professionals in the Commonwealth.
2. That the department of public welfare create the position of director of Spanish speaking affairs to coordinate all programs for Spanish speaking people and establish a direct channel for communications between the department and the local bodies serving the Spanish speaking clients.
3. That the department of public welfare establish an arrival center booth where immigrant Puerto Rican families can receive basic information about housing, jobs, health resources, schooling, English classes, and social and recreational activities and be given any immediate emergency aid they require. This program should be maintained by Puerto Rican personnel.
4. That information brochures and pamphlets in Spanish explaining the rights and limitations of welfare applicants be offered to the Spanish speaking community to provide the information and guidance that are now lacking.
5. That the New Hampshire Department of Public Welfare notify the civil service commission that examinations for social work positions should be available in Spanish.
6. That the New Hampshire Department of Public Welfare improve its staff by:
a. Hiring Spanish speaking, particularly Puerto Rican, workers and social service technicians, including an exchange program with the University of Puerto Rico School of Social Work and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Department of Social Services;
b. Training all staff to understand the unique aspects of Puerto Rican clients, including familiarity with their culture and values and problems of adaptation to the mainland.
7. That training programs which provide para-professional personnel for the department of welfare formulate their curriculum toward preparing Spanish speaking people for the civil service examination.
8. That the Manchester Department of Health and Hospitals and the Nashua Department of Health actively recruit Spanish speaking health professionals from Puerto Rico and from other areas of large Spanish speaking populations and, if necessary, seek certification requirement which would include field training in lieu of the present academic requirements.
9. That the Manchester Department of Health and Hospitals and other participating hospitals provide additional staff and funding for community health clinics to enable expansion into other services as well as to increase services to a 24-hour basis.
10. That the hospitals in Manchester and Nashua equip themselves to deal with the problems of tropical diseases; and that they provide interpreters so that Spanish speaking patients may utilize the full range of available health services.
11. That the local hospitals and health departments cooperate with the local antipoverty programs in establishing additional social work technician training programs for Puerto Rican trainees.
12. That the Department of Public Welfare and the State legislature consider modification of the flat grant system to allow for the special needs of Spanish speaking Aid for Dependent Children recipients.
13. That the Office of Federal Contract Compliance in the Department of Labor, under Executive Order 11246, conduct an investigation of the employment practices of public or private hospitals which are under contract with the Federal Government.
14. That the civil rights division of HEW conduct an investigation under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to determine whether proprietary and public hospitals receiving Hill-Burton Funds have an adequate representation of Spanish speaking employees at the professional level.
15. The HEW establish a grant program to universities in the area and the University of Puerto Rico to attract Puerto Rican and other Spanish speaking persons to the various areas of the medical profession.
Recommendations on Law Enforcement:
1. We demand a Class Action Lawsuit to be prepared against the police department for the illegal searches and seizures, illegal arrests, police brutality, and harassment.
2. We demand the Civil Rights Commission to re-open all the Hispanics' cases that were brought before the courts, and do an investigation.
3. We demand the placement of Spanish interpreters in the courts and police stations.
4. We demand Puerto Rican and Black lawyers, to be recruited in the State of New Hampshire.
5. We demand Puerto Rican and Black policemen to be recruited into the State of New Hampshire, and serve the cities of Manchester and Nashua.
6. We want the Constitution of the United States and bill of Rights, and general community rights to be translated and written in Spanish.
7. We demand that the police department also provide their officers with some education on the background, and culture of the Puerto Rican community.
8. We demand protection, not harassment from the police department. We want to be respected, not abused.
9. We demand that an investigation be performed on how the courts operate when a Puerto Rican or other Spanish speaking person attends.
Editor's note: The foregoing article and demands were written by a highly articulate Puerto Rican gentleman who was a political prisoner in the state of New Hampshire. Many of the demands and wishes coincide with those demands of the Editor in Chief in the first issue of True Democracy. Some of the foregoing wishes may have resolved themselves, however, it is the opinion of the Editor in Chief that most of these demands and wishes are still viable demands. We are, therefore, adding them to the DEMANDS page for threat of boycott of New Hampshire and any other state which treats Puerto Ricans and other minorities is such a shameful way.