The Trilateral Commission: Effect on the Middle East
Arlene Johnson
1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | Appendix

Appendix A

ORIGINAL MEMBERS OF THE TRILATERAL COMMISSION IN THE U. S.

I. W. Abel Emmett Dedmon Elliot Richardson
David M. Abshire Hedley W. Donovan John E. Rielly
Gardner Ackley Daniel J. Evans Charles W. Robinson
Graham Allison Thomas S. Foley David Rockefeller
John B. Anderson George S. Franklin John D. Rockefeller IV
Ernest Arbuckle Donald M. Fraser Robert V. Roosa
Anne Armstrong Richard N. Gardner William Roth, Jr.
John Paul Astin John H. Glenn, Jr. Carl T. Rowan
George W. Ball Patrick E. Haggerty John C. Sawhill
Lucy Wilson Benson Philip M. Hawley Henry B. Schacht
W. Michael Blumenthal Charles B. Heck J. Robert Schaetzel
Robert R. Bowie Walter W. Heller William W. Scranton
John Brademas William A. Hewitt Mark Sheperd, Jr.
Andres Brimmer Carla A. Hills Gerald C. Smith
William E. Brock III James F. Hoge, Jr. Anthony M. Soloman
Harold Brown Richard C. Holbrook Edson W. Spencer
Zbigniew Brzesinski Hendrik Houthakker Robert Taft, Jr.
John F. Burlingame Thomas L. Hughes Arthur R. Taylor
Arthur F. Burns Robert Ingersoll James R. Thompson
George Bush J. K. Jamieson Russell E. Train
Philip Caldwell D. Gale Johnson Philip H. Trezise
Hugh Calkins Edgar F. Kaiser Cyrus R. Vance
Jimmy Carter Henry Kissinger Paul A. Volker
Sol Chaikin Joseph Kraft Martha R. Wallace
Lawton Chiles Sol M. Linowitz Martin J. Ward
Warren Christopher Winston Lord Paul Warnke
Alden W. Clausen Wilbur D. Mills Glenn E. Watts
William S. Cohen Walter F. Mondale Casper Weinberger
William T. Coleman, Jr. Lee L. Morgan George Weyerhaeuser
Barber B. Conable, Jr. Kenneth D. Naden Marina von Whitman
Richard N. Cooper Joseph S. Nye, Jr. Carroll L. Wilson
John Cowles, Jr. Henry D. Owen Thorton A. Wilson
Alan Cranston David Packard Arthur M. Wood
John C. Culver Gerald L. Parsky Leonard Woodcock
Gerald L. Curtis William R. Pearce Andrew Young
Lloyd N. Cutler John H. Perkins
John C. Danforth Peter G. Peterson
Archibald K. Davis Edwin O. Reischauer


[Author's note: Since the original research was performed in 1987, the following new members of the Trilateral members have been added according to documentation sent to the author in 1999 by the Trilateral Commission's secretary who is in the New York City office:

Paul A. Allaire Susan V. Berresford André Desamarais
Dwayne O. Andreas John H. Bryan Dennis Dammerman
Michael Armacost Gerhard Casper John H. Deutch
C. Michael Armstrong John H. Chafee Peter C. Dobell
Euan Baird Richard B. Cheney Paul Dobriansky
Riley P. Bechtel E. Gerald Corrigan Wendy K. Dobson
Jessica P. Einhorn James R. Houghton Robert D. Putnam
Jeffrey E. Epstein James A. Johnson Franklin Raines
Robert F. Erburu Vernon R. Jordan Charles B. Rangel
William I. Esrey Thomas Labrecque Lee R. Raymond
Senator Dianne Feinstein Kenneth L. Lay Charles S. Robb
Martin S. Feldstein Jim Leach George F. Russell, Jr.
Stanley Fischer Gerald Levin Kurt L. Schmoke
George M.C. Fisher E. Peter Lougheed Raymond G. H. Seitz
Richard B. Fisher Whitney MacMillan C. J. Silas
L. Yves Fortier Jessica Tuchman Mathews Gordon Smith
Stephen Friedman Deryck C. Maughan George Soros
Leslie L. Gelb Jay Masur Ronald D. Southern
John A. Georges H. Harrison McCain Wilson H. Taylor
David R. Gergen Hugh L. McColl Laura D'Andrea Tyson
Louis V. Gerstner William McDonough Henry Wendt
Peter C. Godsoe Robert McNamara L. R. Wilson
William C. Graham Lucio A. Noto Robert C. Winters
William H. Gray III Michel Oksenberg Paul D. Wolfowitz
Maurice R. Greenberg James A. Pattison Robert Zoellick
Robert D. Haas William J. Perry Mortimer Zuckerman
Lee H. Hamilton Michael E. G. Phelps


Former Members in Government Service: Bruce Babbit, Stephen W. Bosworth, Bill Clinton, William S. Cohen, Thomas Foley, Alan Greenspan, Roy MacLaren

For original Trilateral members in Western Europe and Japan please consult the book entitled Trilateralism edited by Holly Sklar 1980; for current Western Europe and Japanese Trilateral members consult either the Trilateral office in New York City or in the periodical entitled True Democracy, 1:1 to be released soon. Thank you, The author.]


APPENDIX B

ALGERIA

Posted or Tax Reference Prices
1964 2.35
1969 2.65
1971 3.36*
1972 3.60*
1973 6.64*
1974 16.22


Official Selling Prices
1974 13.10*
1975 12.17*
1976 12.97*
1877 14.38*
1978 14.18*
1979 22.36*
1980 35.47*
1981 38.75*
1982 36.25*
1983 30.50*


IRAN

Posted or Tax Reference Prices
Iranian light Iranian heavy


1954 1.86 1.67
1957 1.99 1.80
1959 1.81 1.62
1960 - 1.65*
1965 1.79 -
1970 - 1.72
1971 2.22* 2.18
1972 2.47 2.42
1973 3.68* 3.54
1974 11.68* 11.44*
1975 12.50 12.36
1976 - 12.22*
1977 13.77 13.43


Official Selling Prices
1974 10.67 10.45
1975 11.62 11.45
1976 - 11.37*
1977 12.81 12.49
1978 - -
1979 19.95* 19.13*
1980 33.19* 32.32*
1981 35.80* 34.70*
1982 32.20* 30.30*
1983 28.00 27.00*


IRAQ

Posted or Tax Reference Prices
Kirkuk Basra
1950 2.41 -
1953 2.34 1.90
1956 2.46 1.85
1957 2.59 1.98
1958 2.49 -
1959 2.31 1.80
1960 2.18* 1.70
1962 - 1.72
1970 2.41 -
1971 3.19* 2.21
1972 3.32 2.45
1973 5.03 3.58*


Official Selling Prices
1974 - 10.48
1975 - 11.53
1976 11.65 11.43
1977 12.77 12.58
1979 19.84* 19.22*
1980 30.18* 29.96*
1981 35.18* 34.96*
1982 34.21 34.83
1983 29.08 28.46


KUWAIT

Posted or Tax Reference Prices
Export Khafji
1953 1.60 -
1957 1.85 -
1959 1.67 -
1960 1.59 1.42
1970 1.68 1.55
1971 2.14* 2.02
1972 2.37 2.24
1973 3.47 3.28*
1974 11.35* 11.26*
1975 12.15 11.99
1976 - 11.88
1977 - 13.09*
1978 - 12.94
1979 - 18.94*
1980 - 31.40*
1981 - 35.94*
1982 - 33.37


Official Selling Prices
1974 10.37 10.29
1975 11.30 11.15
1976 11.23 11.05
1977 12.37 12.17*
1978 12.27 12.03
1979 17.93* 17.61*
1980 29.50* 29.20*
1981 34.25* 33.43
1982 32.30 31.03
1983 27.80* 29.51*


LIBYA

Posted or Tax Reference Prices

Libyan light
1961 2.23
1970 2.53
1971 3.42*
1972 3.58*
1973 5.46*
1974 15.19*
1975 16.06
1976 16.35
1977 18.52*
1978 18.26
1979 27.41*
1980 49.08*
1981 55.57*


Official Selling Prices
1975 12.32
1976 12.62
1977 14.06*
1978 13.91*
1979 20.47*
1980 36.11*
1981 39.50*
1982 36.20*
1983 30.40


SAUDI ARABIA

Posted or Tax Reference Prices

Arabian light
FOB Ras Tanura FOB Sidon
1950 1.75 2.41
1953 1.93 2.35
1956 - 2.54*
1957 2.08 2.55
1958 - 2.45
1959 1.90 2.27
1960 1.80 2.17
1970 - 2.37
1971 2.18 3.16*
1972 2.48 3.34*
1973 3.62*(*) 4.20*(1*)
1974 11.45* 13.36*
1975 12.38 -
1976 -*** - ***
1977 13.00 - ***
1978 - *** - ***
1979 18.74* - ***
1980 31.19* - ***
1981 36.56 - ***
1982 - *** - ***


Official Selling Prices
1974 10.46 - ***
1975 11.51 - ***
1976 - *** - ***
1977 12.09 - ***
1978 - *** - ***
1979 17.47* - ***
1980 29.00* - ***
1981 34.00 - ***
1982 - *** 34.55*
1983 29.50* 29.75*


*
      Average compiled from various rates set for the fiscal year.
(*)
      Indicates an unrepresentative average. Saudi oil actually rose from $2.59 in January
     
      to $5.04 in December.
(1*)
      Indicates an unrepresentable average. Saudi oil actually rose from $3.45 to $7.03 for
      the same period as above.
***
      Oil was obtained from other locations of country.

Important note: Various prices established by different countries exist because of different grades of oil quality which require different levels of refining. The higher priced oil (example Libya, known as sweet oil) costs much less to refine compared with lower priced oil (example Saudi Arabia). In fact, the lower priced crude may cost the refiner more overall to make market ready than the higher priced crude oil. Oil, in its natural state is not useful. It must be refined.


APPENDIX C

" " " In Millions of Dollars
1974 1976 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983
Algeria ** 3304 5934 13426 16127 16334 15359 13897 12915
Egypt** 2850 5775 9942 11461 12785 14271 15468 15530
Pakistan* 4633 6000 7583 7999 8780 8812 9164 9465
Syria** 505 1001 1978 2286 2405 2512 2616 2660
Tunisia** 922 1184 2457 3023 3229 3281 3471 3427


*Classified by the United Nations as a low income country with GNP per capita of $405 or less.
** Classified by the United Nations as a middle income country with GNP per capita of over $405.


REFERENCES

Girvan, Norman. 1980. "Managing The International Capitalist Economy." Pp. 437-467 in Trilateralism edited by Holly Sklar. Boston: South End Press.

Hansen, Roger A. 1984. U.S. Foreign Policy and the Third World: Agenda 1982. New York Praeger.

Kegley, Charles and Eugene Wittkoff. 1982. American Foreign Policy: Patterns and Process. New York: St. Martins Press.

Kowalewski, David and Thomas A. Leitko. 1983. "Transnational Corporations and Intergovernmental Organizations: The Trilateral Commission Case." Journal of Political and Military Sociology 2:93-107.

Mortimer, Robert A. 1980. The Third World Coalition in International Politics. New York: Praeger.

Mossaver-Rahmani, Bijan. 1980. "OPEC vs. NOPEC" Journal of International Affairs 34:37-48

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. 1984 Annual Statistical Bulletin. Pp. 118-127.

Oye, Kenneth A. 1979. Eagle Entangled: U.S. Foreign Policy in a Complex World. New York
      Longman Press.

Rockefeller, David. "Foolish Attacks on False Issues" P. xi in Trilateralism edited by Holly Sklar. Boston: South End Press.

Sklar, Holly and Ros Everdell. 1980. "Who's Who on the Trilateral Commission." Pp. 90-122 in Trilateralism edited by Holly Sklar. Boston: South End Press.

Shoup, Laurence H. 1980. "Jimmy Carter and the Trilateral Commission." Pp. 199-211 in Trilateralism edited by Holly Sklar. Boston: South End Press.

The World Bank. 1983. World Tables. Volume I. Economic Data.

United Nations Statistical Yearbook. 1983-4. Pp. 327-8.


1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | Appendix