Mayer Rothschild and his sons dominate European banking
In its issue of December 19, 1983, Forbes Magazine noted that "Half of Germany's top ten banks are Frankfurt based." The modern world's financial system, an updating of the Babylonian monetary system of taxes and money creation, was perfected in Frankfurt-on-Main, in the province of Hesse. Mayer Amschel Bauer (later Rothschild) discovered that although loans to farmers and small businesses could be profitable, the real profits lay in making loans to governments. Born in Frankfurt in 1743, Mayer Amschel married Gutta Schnapper. He served a three year apprenticeship in Hanover at the bank of Oppenheim. During this period, he had occasion to be of service to Lt. Gen. Baron von Estorff. Von Estorff was the principal adviser to Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse, the wealthiest man in Europe. Frederick was worth from 70 to 100 million florins, much of it inherited from his father, Wilhelm the Eighth, brother of the King of Sweden. Baron von Estorff advised the Landgrave that Mayer Amschel showed an uncanny ability to increase money through his investments. The Landgrave immediately sent for him.
At this time, King George III [of England] was trying to put down the American Rebellion. His troops were being outfought by the hardy Americans, who were accustomed to wilderness battles. Mayer Amschel arranged for King George to hire 16,800 sturdy young Hessian soldiers from the Landgrave, a considerable addition to the Hesse's fortune. This advantageous relationship came to a halt with the sudden death in 1785 of the Landgrave, who was only twenty-five years old. However, Mayer Amschel attained absolute influence over his successor, Elector Wilhelm I, who, like Mayer Amschel, had also been born in 1743. It was said that they were like two shoes, so well did they go together. It was a pleasant change from Mayer Amschel's relationship with the former Landgrave, who had been a very difficult and demanding person. In fact, the Landgrave's sudden death had luckily placed Mayer Amschel in charge of the largest fortune in Europe.
As he prospered, Mayer Amschel placed a large red shield over his door of the house in the Judengasse, which he shared with the Schiff family. He took the name "Rothschild" from his sign. In 1812, when he died, he left one billion franks to his five sons. The eldest, Anselm, was placed in charge of the Frankfurt bank. He had no children, and the bank was later closed. The second son, Salomon, was sent to Vienna, where he soon took over the banking monopoly formerly shared among five Jewish families: Arnstein, Eskeles, Geymüller, Stein and Sina. The third son, Nathan, founded the London branch, after he had profited in some Manchester dealings in textiles and dyestuffs which caused him to be widely feared and hated. Karl, the fourth son, went to Naples, where he became head of the occult group, the Alta Vendita. The youngest son, James, founded the French branch of the House of Rothschild in Paris.
Thus strategically located, the five sons began their lucrative operations in government finance. Today, their holdings are concentrated in the Five Arrows Fund of Curacao, and the Five Arrows Corp. of Toronto, Canada. The name is taken from the Rothschild sign of an eagle with five arrows clutched in its talons, signifying the five sons.
The first precept of success in making government loans lies in "creating a demand," that is, by taking part in the creation of financial panics, depressions, famines, wars, and revolutions. The overwhelming success of the Rothschilds lay in their willingness to do what had to be done. As Frederic Morton writes in the preface to "The Rothschilds":
"For the last one hundred and fifty years, the history of the House of Rothschild has been to an amazing degree the backstage history of Western Europe... Because of their success in making loans not to individuals but to nations, they reaped huge profits... Someone once said that the wealth of Rothschild consists of the bankruptcy of nations."
In "The Empire of the City", E.C. Knuth says:
"The fact that the House of Rothschild made its money in the great crashes of history and the great wars of history, the very periods when others lost their money, is beyond question."
On July 8, 1937, the New York Times noted that Prof. Wilhelm, a German historian, had said:
"The Rothschilds introduced the rule of money into European politics. The Rothschilds were the servants of money who undertook the reconstruct the world as an image of money and its functions. Money and the employment of wealth have become the law of European life; we no longer have nations, but economic provinces."
On June 4, 1879, the New York Times noted:
"Baron Lionel N. de Rothschild, head of the world famous banking house of Messrs. Rothschild & Co. died at the age of 71. He was son of the late Baron N.M. Rothschild who founded the house in London in 1808 and died in 1836. His father came to the conclusion that in order to perpetuate the fame and power of the Rothschilds, which had already become worldwide, it was necessary that the family be kept together, and devoted to the common cause. In order to do this, he proposed that they should intermarry, and form no marital unions outside the family. A council of the heads of the houses was called at Frankfurt in 1826, end the views of Baron Nathan were approved."
In "The Rothschilds: The Financial Rulers of Nations," John Reeves writes:
"The first occasion in which Nathan assisted the English government was in 1819, when he undertook the loan of $60 million; from 1818-1832 Nathan issued eight other loans totalling $105,400,000; he subsequently issued eighteen Government loans totalling $700 million. To the Rothschilds, nothing could have occurred more propitiously than the outbreak of the American revolt and the French Revolution, as the two enabled them to lay the foundation of the immense wealth they have since acquired.
Editor's note: It was Rothschild in Britain that caused the American Revolution and the Rothschild in France that caused the French Revolution.
The House of Rothschild was (and is) the ruling power in Europe, for all the political powers were willing to acknowledge the sway of the great financial Despot, and, like obedient vassals, pay their tribute without murmur.... Its influence was so all-powerful that it was a saying, no war could be undertaken without the assistance of the Rothschilds. They rose to a position of such power in the political and commercial world that they became the Dictators of Europe. To the public the archives of the family, which could throw so much light upon history, are a profound secret, a sealed book kept well hidden."
On July 27, 1844, [Giuseppe] Mazzini said, "Rothschild could be King of France if he so desired." The Jewish Encydopedia noted (1909 edition): "In the year 1848 the Paris house (of Rothschild) was reckoned to be worth 600,000,000 francs as against 352,000,000 francs held by all the other Paris bankers."
In "Jews and Modern Capitalism," Prof. Werner Sombart wrote:
"The principal loan floaters of the world, the Rothschilds, were later the first railway kings. The period of 1820 onwards became the 'Age of the Rothschilds' so that at the middle of the century it was a common dictum: There is only one power in Europe, and that is Rothschild."
Hearst's Chicago Evening American commented, December 3, 1923: "The Rothschilds can start or prevent wars. Their word could make or break empires." Reeves notes, "The fall of Napoleon was the rise of Rothschild." Napoleon was later slowly poisoned to death with arsenic by a Rothschild agent. They had no need of another "return from exile."
The New York Evening Post noted July 22, 1924, "The Kaiser had to consult Rothschild to find out whether he could declare war. Another Rothschild carried out the whole burden of the conflict which overthrew Napoleon."
The Kaiser's Chancellor, Bethmann-Hollweg, who actually precipitated World War I, was a member of the Frankfurt banking family, Bethmann, and a cousin of the Rothschilds.
Overturning the European Monarchs
After the fall of Napoleon, Salomon persuaded the ruler of Austria to issue patents of nobility to the five brothers. The Congress of Vienna was the emergence of the moth from its cocoon. The diktat of this Congress was a simple one -- the aristocracies of Europe must submit to our will, or they are doomed. The death sentence upon the noble lines of Europe was pronounced by those who had the will to carry out their edict. It took another century to perfect the work, not because the killers were weak, but because they wished to proceed cautiously, without revealing their full strength. In combat, the decisive weapon is the one about which your opponent does not know.
It was not necessary to pronounce a death sentence upon the ruling families of America, because there were none. During the 19th century, a few descendants of colonial entrepreneurs had amassed wealth, and could afford a life of leisure and travel. They remained slavishly dependent upon Continental arbiters in every matter requiring personal taste and judgment. Because they had no guiding philosophy, and no program, this American "upper class" never made it to the top of the stairs. They remained "below stairs" as servants of the London princes of the World Order.
Their self-abasement not only manifested itself in an unusually high rate of suicide, but also in the slower forms of self-destruction, alcoholism, drug addiction, and homosexuality. Homosexuality is not so much a type of sexual drive as it is the expression of deeper needs, the desire for self-degradation, or the seeking of a partner who one can humiliate and degrade. It could hardly be unexpected that such a "ruling class" would eagerly hail the twentieth century crusade to enthrone Communism as the vehicle of the World Order.
In their quest for wealth, the Rothschilds did not overlook either the small farmer or the stockpiling and wholesaling of grain. They developed a "farm loan" system which has been the curse of the farmers for more than a century. R.F. Pettigrew noted in the British Guardian, "This system of banking (causing the ultimate ruin of all those who cultivate the soil) was the invention of Lord Overstone, with the assistance of the Rothschilds, bankers of Europe."
One of their greatest triumphs was the successful outcome of the Rothschilds' protracted war against the Russian Imperial Family. The family name of the Romanovs was derived from Roma Nova, New Rome. It embodied the ancient prophecy that Moscow was to become "the New Rome." The family originated with Prince Prus, brother of Emperor August of Rome, who founded Prussia. In 1614, Michael became the first Romanov Czar.
After the fall of Napoleon, the Rothschilds turned all their hatred against the Romanovs. In 1825, they poisoned Alexander I; in 1855, they poisoned Nicholas I. Other assassinations followed, culminating on the night of November 6, 1917, when a dozen Red Guards drove a truck up to the Imperial Bank Building in Moscow. They loaded the Imperial jewel collection and $700 million in gold, loot totalling more than a billion dollars. The new regime also confiscated the 150 million acres in Russia personally owned by the Czar.
Of equal importance were the enormous cash reserves which the Czar had invested abroad in European and American banks. The New York Times stated that the Czar had $5 million in Guaranty Trust, and $1 million in the National City Bank; other authorities stated it was $5 million in each bank. Between 1905 and 1910 the Czar had sent more than $900 million to be deposited in six leading New York banks: Chase, National City Bank, Guaranty Trust, J.P. Morgan, Hanover, and Manufacturers Trust. These were the principal banks controlled by the House of Rothschild through their American agents: J.P. Morgan and Kuhn, Loeb Co. These were also the six New York banks which bought the controlling stock in the Federal Reserve Bank of New York in 1914. They have held control of the stock ever since.
The Czar also had $115 million in four English banks. He had $35 million in the Bank of England, $25 million in Barings, $25 million in Barclays, and $30 million in Lloyd's Bank. In Paris, the Czar had $100 million in Banque de France, and $80 million in the Rothschild Bank of Paris. In Berlin, he had $132 million in the Mendelsohn Bank, which had long been bankers to Russia.
None of these sums has ever been disbursed; at compound interest since 1916, they amount to more than $50 billion. Two claimants later appeared, a son, Alexis, and a daughter, Anastasia. Despite a great deal of proof substantiating their claims, Peter Kurth notes in "Anastasia" that: "Lord Mountbatten put up the money for court battles against Anastasia. Although he was Empress Alexandra's nephew, he was the guiding force behind Anastasia's opposition." The Battenbergs, or Mountbattens, were also related to the Rothschild family. They did not wish to see the Czar's fortune reclaimed and removed from the Rothschild banks.
Kurth also notes:
"In a 1959 series on the history of the great British banks, for example, the Observer of London remarked of Baring Brothers, 'The Romanovs were among their most distinguished clients. It is affirmed that Barings still holds a deposit of more than forty million pounds that was left them by the Romanovs.' Anthony Sampson, editor in chief, said no protests were made. This story is generally considered to be true."
Rothschild Interests in England
In the early 19th century, the Rothschilds began to consolidate their profits from government loans into various business ventures, which have done very well. Fortuitous trading on the London Stock Exchange after Waterloo gave Nathaniel Mayer Rothschild a sizeable portion of the "consols" [bonds] which formed the bulk of the deposits of the Bank of England. Joseph Wechsberg notes in "The Merchant Bankers":
"There is the Sun Alliance life insurance company, most aristocratic of all insurance companies, founded by Nathan Rothschild in 1824; Brinco, the British Newfoundland Corp., founded by the British and French Rothschilds in 1952; the Anglo-American Corp., Bowater, Rio Tinto and others."
Not only does the bank rate of the Bank of England affect the interest rates in other nations; the price of gold also plays a crucial role in the monetary affairs of nations, even if they are no longer on the gold standard. The dominant role played by the House of Rothschild in the Bank of England is augmented by another peculiar duty of the firm, the daily 'fixing' of the world price of gold. The News Chronicle of Dec. 12, 1938, describes this ritual:
"The story of the gold-fixing has often been told. How every weekday at 11 a.m. the representatives of five firms of bullion brokers and one firm of refiners meet at the office of Messrs. Rothschild (except on Saturday) and there fix the sterling price of gold. There is, however, a great deal of activity which lies behind his final act -- this centralization of the demand for, and the supply of gold in one office and the fixing of the price of gold on that basis. A price of gold is first suggested, probably by the representative of Messrs. Rothschild, who also acts for the Bank of England and the Exchange Equalization Account."
The banking houses privileged to meet with the Rothschilds to set the world price of gold are known as "the Club of Five." In 1958, they were : N.M. Rothschild, Samuel Montagu, Moccata and Goldsmid, Sharps Pixley, and Johnson Matthey.
In 1961, the London Accepting Houses operating by approval of the Governor of the Bank of England were :
*Wm. Brandt's & Sons
*Antony Gibbs & Co.
*Guinness Mahon Hawkins
*Kleinwort & Sons
*J. Henry Schroder
These chosen firms rule the financial establishment in "the City" of London.
In 1961, the leading business groups in England were listed by Wm. M. Clarke as:
1. Morgan Grenfell Ltd. (Lord Bicester) the Peabody J.P. Morgan firm
2. Jardine Matheson
3. Rothschild-Samuel-Oppenheimer [group], comprising Rio Tinto, British South Africa Co., Shell Petroleum, Brinco (British Newfoundland Corp.)
4. Lazard Brothers, Shell, English Electric, Canadian Eagle Oil
5. Lloyd's Bank
6. Barclay's Bank
7. Peninsular & Orient Lines
9. Midland Group -- Eagle Star -- Higginson (Cavendish-Bentinck)
10. Prudential [Assurance Co.]
11. Imperial Chemical Industries
Although this list shows the Rothschild group as only one of fourteen, in fact they hold large positions or influence in the other groups of this list.
In 1982, the principal directorships held by the London Rothschilds were :
* Lord [Jacob] Rothschild -- N.M. Rothschild & Sons, Arcan N.V. Curacao, chairman Rothschild's Continuation, and Rothschild Inc. USA.
* Edmund Leopold de Rothschild -- N.M. Rothschild & Sons, Alfred Dunhill Ltd., Rothschild Continuation, Rothschild Trust, Rothman's International, chmn Tokyo Pacific Holdings N.V.
* Baron Eric Rothschild -- N.M. Rothschild & Sons
* Evelyn de Rothschild -- chmn N.M. Rothschild & Sons, DeBeers Consolidated Mines Ltd. South Africa, Eagle Star Insurance Co., chmn The Economist Newspaper Ltd., IBM UK Ltd., La Banque Privee S.A., Manufacturers Hanover Ltd., Rothschild Continuation Ltd., chmn United Race Courses Ltd
* Leopold de Rothschild -- N.M. Rothschild & Sons, Alliance Assurance Co., Bank of England, The London Assurance, Rothschild Continuation Ltd., Rothschild Continuation Holdings AG Switzerland, Sun Alliance and London Assurance Co., Sun Insurance Office Ltd.
The British firms comprising the major basis of the Rothschild fortune are: Sun Alliance Assurance, Eagle Star, DeBeers, and Rio Tinto.
Eagle Star's directors include:
* Duncan Mackinnon, of [S.G.] Hambro Investment Trust
* Earl Cadogan, whose mother was a Hambro
* Sir Robert Clark, chairman Hill Samuel Co.
* Marquess Linlithgow (Charles Hope) whose mother was a Milner -- he married Judith Baring
* Evelyn de Rothschild
* Sir Ian Stewart of Brown Shipley Co., who has been parliamentary private secretary to the Chancellor of the Exchequer since 1979.
DeBeers directors include:
* Harry F. Oppenheimer
* Sir Philip Oppenheimer
* A.E. Oppenheimer
* N.F. Oppenheimer
* Baron Evelyn de Rothschild
* Sidney Spiro
Spiro is also a director of Rio Tinto, Hambros Bank, Barclays Bank, and Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce.
DeBeers interlocks with Anglo-American Corp. of South Africa, of which Harry F. Oppenheimer is chairman, and Anglo-American Gold Investment Co. of which Julian Ogilvie Thompson is chairman, and Harry F. Oppenheimer director.
DeBeers interlocks with Hambros Bank, whose chairman is Jocelyn Hambro; directors are R.N. Hambro, C.E. Hambro, Hon. H.W. Astor; Sir Ian Morrow, chairman UKO Int. and The Laird Group, International Harvester, Rolls Royce, and the Brush Group; J.M. Clay, director of the Bank of England; Mark Weinberg, and Sidney Spiro.
Rio Tinto's chairman is Sir Anthony Tuke; he is also chairman Barclay's Bank, and member of the Trilateral Commission. Directors are Lord Shackleton, Lord Privy Seal, chairman RTZ Dev. Corp.; Lord Charteris of Amisfield, grandson of Earl of Wemys, married to daughter of Viscount Margesson, private secretary to Queen Elizabeth, director of Claridge's Hotel, and Connaught Hotel; Sir David Orr, chairman Unilever; and Sidney Spiro, Hambros Bank.
The principal Rothschild firm is Sun Alliance Assurance, which Nathan Mayer Rothschild founded in 1824, with Sir Alex Baring, Samuel Gurney, and Sir Moses Montefiore, with an initial capital of five million pounds.
* The chairman of Sun Alliance is Lord Aldington (Toby Low) who is also chairman Westland Aircraft, director of Citibank, Citicorp, and GE Ltd
* Lord Aberconway, dep. chairman
* H.V.A. Lambert, chairman Barclay's Bank
* Earl of Crawford (Robert A. Lindsay), whose mother was a Cavendish -- he is also chairman National Westminister Bank, former private secretary to the Secretary of Treasury. Minister of State for Defense, Minister of State for Foreign and Commercial Affairs
* Lord Astor, whose mother was the daughter of Earl of Minto -- he is the former chairman of The [London] Times
* Sir Charles Ball, of Kleinwort Benson, also director of Chubb & Sons., Barclay's Bank, Cadbury Schweppes
* Sir Alan Dalton, director Natl. Westminster Bank
* Duke of Devonshire -- his mother was a Cecil, one of England's three ruling families since the Middle Ages
* Sir Derek Holden-Brown, chairman Allied Breweries, director Hiram Walker
* J.N.C. James, trustee Grosvenor Estates, which owns large sections of London
* Henry Keswick, chairman Matheson & Co.
* Lord Kindersley, exec. director of Lazard Bros., director of Marconi, English Electric, British Match, Swedish Match
* Sir Peter Matthews, chairman Vickers
* J.M. Ricchie, chairman British Enkalon, director of Vickers, Bowater Ltd.
* Evelyn de Rothschild, chairman N.M. Rothschild & Sons.
The Rothschilds have had a large position in Vickers for many years. Chairman is Sir Peter Matthews, also director Lloyd's Bank and Sun Alliance. Directors are T. Neville; Baron Braybrooke; Earl of Warwick (the Salisburys, one of three ruling families in England); Sir Alastair Frame, chief exec. Rio Tinto Zinc, director of Plessey & Co. UK, and the Atomic Energy Authority. The chairman of Vickers in 1956 was Edward Knollys, son of the private secretary to King Edward VII forty years, and George V for 5 years.